Avoidance therapy in reactive dye-induced occupational asthma: long-term follow-up

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006 Oct;97(4):551-6. doi: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60949-0.


Background: Previous studies reported that early diagnosis and avoidance therapy are the most important factors for prevention of permanent lung impairment; however, few studies have evaluated the long-term prognosis of reactive dye-induced occupational asthma (RD-OA).

Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of RD-OA.

Methods: Methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and lung functions were evaluated and compared in 26 patients with RD-OA at the time of diagnosis and after complete avoidance of the causative agents. Patients with continued (n = 13) or remitted (n = 6) AHR were further monitored for up to a mean +/- SD of 8.7 +/- 1.8 years.

Results: The AHR resolved in 10 (38%) of 26 patients a mean +/- SD of 2.2 +/- 1.3 years after complete avoidance of RDs; however, prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) values were not different. Levels of IgE specific to the RD-human serum albumin complex were markedly decreased at first follow-up in 5 RD-atopic patients from whom paired serum samples were compared (P = .02). The AHR disappeared in an additional 5 patients and improved in 4 by the second follow-up. The FEV1 values also improved compared with diagnosis and first follow-up levels. Favorable prognosis was associated with early diagnosis of RD-OA and complete avoidance of the causative agent. No association was found with smoking history, latent periods, the presence of RD specific IgE, baseline provocation concentration that caused a decrease in FEV1 of 20%, or FEV1.

Conclusions: Early diagnosis and avoidance therapy are the most important prognostic factors in RD-OA. The AHR and lung function of patients with RD-OA can sometimes be recovered steadily and slowly through avoidance measures.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Asthma / chemically induced*
  • Asthma / diagnosis
  • Asthma / prevention & control*
  • Coloring Agents / adverse effects*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin E / blood
  • Korea
  • Methacholine Chloride
  • Occupational Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Occupational Diseases / diagnosis
  • Occupational Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Reduction Behavior*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Coloring Agents
  • Methacholine Chloride
  • Immunoglobulin E