The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a predictor of elevated levels of small, dense LDL cholesterol

Lipids. 2006 Jul;41(7):647-54. doi: 10.1007/s11745-006-5015-8.


The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype (hypertriglyceridemia and increased waist circumference) has been proposed as an inexpensive tool to monitor individuals with the atherogenic metabolic triad, hyperinsulinemia, hyperapobetalipoproteinemia, and increased levels of small, dense LDL (sdLDL) particles. We assessed the association of the HTGW phenotype with the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and the atherogenic metabolic triad in inhabitants (n = 260) of northwestern Greece attending the Outpatient Lipid Clinic of the University Hospital of Ioannina. The LDL subfractions were assessed using the Lipoprint LDL System. HTGW (+) individuals had a more adverse lipid and lipoprotein profile compared with HTGW (-) individuals. Moreover, HTGW (+) subjects had elevated levels of sdLDL-C, as well as decreased mean and peak LDL particle size compared with HTGW (-) subjects. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the sdLDL-C abnormality in HTGW (+) subjects. Among men (n = 105), 52.3% of the MetSyn (+) individuals and 66.7% of the HTGW (+) individuals had the metabolic triad. Among women (n = 155), the corresponding percentages were 42.3% and 50.0%. Only 22.2% and 10.6% of the MetSyn (-) subjects (men and women, respectively) and 19.6% and 15.2% of the HTGW (-) subjects (men and women, respectively) had the atherogenic metabolic triad. In conclusion, the HTGW (+) phenotype is associated with a hostile lipid profile that includes higher levels of sdLDL-C and decreased LDL particle size. The HTGW phenotype, compared with the MetSyn criteria, can provide an easy and inexpensive tool to monitor patients characterized by an adverse lipid and lipoprotein profile.

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Greece / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertriglyceridemia / blood
  • Hypertriglyceridemia / diagnosis*
  • Hypertriglyceridemia / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype*
  • Postmenopause
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Premenopause
  • Prevalence
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Waist-Hip Ratio*


  • Biomarkers
  • Cholesterol, LDL