Oxidative stress and toxicity induced by the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)--2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC): relevance to HIV-dementia

Exp Neurol. 2007 Mar;204(1):29-38. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2006.09.010. Epub 2006 Oct 25.


Human immunodeficiency virus dementia (HIVD) is the most common form of dementia occurring among young adults. In HIVD, neuronal cell loss occurs in the absence of neuronal infection. With the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of HIVD has drastically reduced, though prevalence of milder forms of HIVD continues to rise. Though these agents have been used successfully in suppressing viral production, they have also been associated with a number of side effects. Here we examine the possible role of NRTIs, in particular 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), in the neuropathology of HIVD. Synaptosomes and isolated mitochondria treated and incubated for 6 h with CSF-achievable concentrations of ddC, i.e., 6-11 ng/ml, were found to show a significant increase in oxidative stress with 40 nM ddC as measured by protein carbonyls and 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), effects that were not observed in the more tolerable NRTI, 3TC. Protection against protein oxidation induced by ddC was observed when brain mitochondria were isolated from gerbils 1 h after injection i.p. with the brain accessible antioxidant and glutathione mimetic, tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609). In addition, there is a significant reduction in the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and a significant increase in cytochrome c release and also a significant increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic protein caspase-3 after mitochondria were treated with 40 nM ddC. The results reported here show that ddC at 40 nM can induce oxidative stress, cause the release of cytochrome c, and in addition, reduce the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, increase the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, thereby increasing the possibility for induction of apoptosis. These findings are consistent with the notion of a possible role of the NRTIs, and in particular, ddC, in the mechanisms involved in HIVD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Dementia Complex / drug therapy
  • AIDS Dementia Complex / metabolism
  • AIDS Dementia Complex / psychology
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Apoptosis
  • Bridged-Ring Compounds / pharmacology
  • Caspase 3 / metabolism
  • Cerebral Cortex / drug effects*
  • Cerebral Cortex / metabolism*
  • Cytochromes c / metabolism
  • Disease Progression
  • Gerbillinae
  • Humans
  • Lamivudine / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Mitochondria / drug effects
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology
  • Norbornanes
  • Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Synaptosomes / drug effects
  • Thiocarbamates
  • Thiones / pharmacology
  • Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Tyrosine / metabolism
  • Zalcitabine / pharmacology*
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Bridged-Ring Compounds
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Norbornanes
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  • Thiocarbamates
  • Thiones
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Lamivudine
  • 3-nitrotyrosine
  • Tyrosine
  • tricyclodecane-9-yl-xanthogenate
  • Zalcitabine
  • Cytochromes c
  • Caspase 3