Detection of primary angle closure using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in Asian eyes

Ophthalmology. 2007 Jan;114(1):33-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.05.073. Epub 2006 Oct 27.


Objective: To evaluate noncontact anterior segment optical coherence technology (AS-OCT) as a qualitative method of imaging the anterior chamber angle and to determine its ability to detect primary angle closure when compared with gonioscopy in Asian subjects.

Design: Prospective observational case series.

Participants: Two hundred three subjects were recruited from glaucoma clinics in Singapore with diagnoses of primary angle closure, primary open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, or cataract. Both eyes (if eligible) of each patient were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were pseudophakia or previous glaucoma surgery.

Methods: Images of the nasal, temporal, and inferior angles were obtained with AS-OCT in dark and then light conditions. Gonioscopic angle width was graded using the Spaeth classification for each quadrant in low lighting conditions.

Main outcome measures: Angle closure was defined by AS-OCT as contact between the peripheral iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur and by gonioscopy as a Spaeth grade of 0 degree (posterior trabecular meshwork not visible). Comparison of the 2 methods in detecting angle closure was done by eye and by individual. Sensitivities and specificities of AS-OCT were calculated using gonioscopy as the reference standard.

Results: Complete data were available for 342 eyes of 200 patients. Of the patients, 70.9% had a clinical diagnosis of treated or untreated primary angle closure. Angle closure in > or =1 quadrants was detected by AS-OCT in 142 (71%) patients (228 [66.7%] eyes) and by gonioscopy in 99 (49.5%) patients (152 [44.4%] eyes). The inferior angle was closed more frequently than the nasal or temporal quadrants using both AS-OCT and gonioscopy. When performed under dark conditions, AS-OCT identified 98% of those subjects found to have angle closure on gonioscopy (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.2-99.6) and led to the characterization of 44.6% of those found to have open angles on gonioscopy to have angle closure as well. With gonioscopy as the reference standard, specificity of AS-OCT in the dark was 55.4% (95% CI, 45.2-65.2) for detecting individuals with angle closure.

Conclusion: Anterior segment OCT is a rapid noncontact method of imaging angle structures. It is highly sensitive in detecting angle closure when compared with gonioscopy. More persons are found to have closed angles with AS-OCT than with gonioscopy.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anterior Eye Segment / pathology*
  • Female
  • Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / diagnosis*
  • Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / ethnology
  • Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / surgery
  • Gonioscopy / methods
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Iridectomy
  • Iris / pathology
  • Iris / surgery
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Singapore / ethnology
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods*