A brain-computer interface (BCI) transforms signals originating from the human brain into commands that can control devices or applications. With this, a BCI provides a new non-muscular communication channel, which can be used to assist patients who have highly compromised motor functions. The Graz-BCI uses motor imagery and associated oscillatory EEG signals from the sensorimotor cortex for device control. As a result of research in the past 15 years, the classification of ERD/ERS patterns in single EEG trials during motor execution and motor imagery forms the basis of this sensorimotor-rhythm controlled BCI. The major frequency bands of cortical oscillations considered here are the 8-13 and 15-30 Hz bands. This chapter describes the basic methods used in Graz-BCI research and outlines possible clinical applications.