Validating the efficacy of neurofeedback for optimising performance

Prog Brain Res. 2006:159:421-31. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(06)59027-2.


The field of neurofeedback training has largely proceeded without validation. Here we review our studies directed at validating SMR, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, mood and music and dance performance in healthy participants. Important benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiological measures which were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback, but much remains to be done.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alpha Rhythm
  • Biofeedback, Psychology / physiology*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Humans
  • Motor Cortex / physiology
  • Music
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology*
  • Somatosensory Cortex / physiology
  • Theta Rhythm