Ibandronate, a potent, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, is the subject of an ongoing clinical development program to explore novel oral and intravenous (i.v.) dosing regimens. As part of this program, an extensive modeling and simulation project was undertaken to develop and validate a pharmacologically realistic mathematical model for ibandronate in osteoporosis, the aim being to identify practical dosing regimens for clinical evaluation. A simplified kinetics of drug action or kinetic-pharmacodynamic (K-PD) model (developed from a 4-compartment pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic [PK-PD] model) accurately described the urinary excretion of the C-telopeptide of the alpha-chain of type I collagen (uCTX). The model was extended to consider the effects of supplemental calcium therapy and allow simultaneous fitting of i.v. and oral ibandronate data, and then externally validated. This model was used successfully in the selection of appropriate once-monthly doses for further clinical evaluation and recent clinical studies have confirmed the efficacy of the doses identified. Further development of the model may include investigating the effects of ibandronate on bone mineral density and fracture risk, which would further enhance its clinical utility and predictive value. Although modeling and simulation has been used to explore the efficacy of other bisphosphonates, the extensive program with ibandronate has produced a comprehensively validated model that is the first to be prospectively tested by evaluating novel dosing regimens.