Purpose of review: The aim of this review is to describe knowledge, mainly of the last 15 years, that changed criteria for specific treatment against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.
Recent findings: Over the past 15 years, there has been an increase in the use of new methodologies to evaluate the efficacy of antiparasitic treatments. These tools showed that the evaluation period for trypanocidal treatment effectiveness could be shortened. Based on the hypothesis that Chagas' cardiomyopathy may indeed be triggered by persistent parasitic infection, it seems plausible that trypanocidal therapy may delay, reduce or prevent the progression to the disease.
Summary: Based on the present knowledge, we can assume that every patient infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in the acute phase and in the early chronic phase (i.e. children under 16 years old) must be treated, and adults could be treated. In this area, research priorities should target obtaining new drugs to allow shorter treatments with fewer adverse reactions and improving new tools to confirm cure when patients are treated during the Chronic Phase.