Development and validation of a preclinical food effect model

J Pharm Sci. 2007 Feb;96(2):459-72. doi: 10.1002/jps.20767.


A preclinical canine model capable of predicting a compound's potential for a human food effect was developed. The beagle dog was chosen as the in vivo model. A validation set of compounds with known propensities for human food effect was studied. Several diets were considered including high-fat dog food and various quantities of the human FDA meal. The effect of pentagastrin pretreatment was also investigated. The high-fat dog food did not predict human food effect and was discontinued from further evaluation. The amount of FDA meal in the dog was important in the overall prediction of the magnitude of human food effect. Fed/fasted Cmax and AUC ratios using a 50-g aliquot of the FDA meal in the dog were in the closest qualitative agreement to human data. Pentagastrin pretreatment did not affect the AUC in the fed state, but increased the fasted AUC for weakly basic compounds. Pentagastrin pretreatment and a 50-g aliquot of the FDA meal in the dog predicted the human food effect for a validation set of compounds. This model, which is intended for compound screening, will be helpful for determining food effect as a liability when compounds progress from discovery to clinical development.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Atazanavir Sulfate
  • Biological Availability
  • Dietary Fats*
  • Dogs
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods*
  • Food-Drug Interactions*
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics
  • Models, Animal*
  • Oligopeptides / pharmacokinetics
  • Pentagastrin / pharmacology*
  • Pravastatin / pharmacokinetics
  • Pyridines / pharmacokinetics


  • Dietary Fats
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Oligopeptides
  • Pyridines
  • Atazanavir Sulfate
  • Pentagastrin
  • Pravastatin