The fresh water pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis is a model organism for studying evolution of genome and gene functions, but its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) sequence is still not available. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of its mtDNA using shotgun sequencing. The T. nigroviridis mtDNA was 16,462 bp, and contained 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and a major non-coding region. The gene order was identical to the common type of vertebrate mtDNA, whereas the G + C content in the sense strand was 46.9%, much higher than most other fish species. One hundred and three SNPs were detected in the control region of the mtDNA of 35 individuals, a majority of SNPs were detected in the 5' end of the control region. A phylogenetic study including 21 fish species was performed on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein coding genes, and revealed that the T. nigroviridis was clustered with Fugu rubripes into a group. The complete mtDNA sequence and SNPs in its control region will be useful in studying fish evolution, in differentiating different Tetraodon species and in analyzing genetic diversity within T. nigroviridis.