Gut hormones signal to the central nervous system to influence energy homeostasis. Evidence supports the existence of a system in the gut that senses the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract and signals to the brain via neural and endocrine mechanisms to regulate short-term appetite and satiety. Recent evidence has shown that specific gut hormones administered at physiological or pathophysiological concentrations can influence appetite in rodents and humans. Gut hormones therefore have an important physiological role in postprandial satiety, and gut hormone signaling systems represent important pharmaceutical targets for potential antiobesity therapies. Our laboratory investigates the role of gut hormones in energy homeostasis and has a particular interest in this field of translational research. In this review we describe our initial studies and the results of more recent investigations into the effects of the gastric hormone ghrelin and the intestinal hormones peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin on energy homeostasis. We also speculate on the role of gut hormones in the future treatment of obesity.