Enteral levodopa/carbidopa gel infusion for the treatment of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias in advanced Parkinson's disease

Expert Rev Neurother. 2006 Oct;6(10):1403-11. doi: 10.1586/14737175.6.10.1403.


Pharmacotherapy designed to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease is focused on the stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors. The ideal pharmacological treatment would involve continuous dopaminergic stimulation. Currently, the most effective pharmacotherapy available is levodopa delivered orally; however, its short plasma half-life in combination with erratic gastric emptying and intestinal absorption makes dopaminergic stimulation pulsatile. Motor fluctuations and dyskinesias develop with time as a consequence and can become disabling. A gel formulation of levodopa/carbidopa has been developed for enteral (duodenal or jejunal) infusion via a portable pump. The infusion provides smooth plasma levodopa levels, more continuous dopaminergic stimulation and effective treatment of motor complications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carbidopa / administration & dosage*
  • Dyskinesias / drug therapy*
  • Dyskinesias / physiopathology
  • Gels
  • Humans
  • Infusion Pumps
  • Infusions, Parenteral
  • Levodopa / administration & dosage*
  • Parkinson Disease / drug therapy*
  • Parkinson Disease / physiopathology


  • Gels
  • Levodopa
  • Carbidopa