The Registre de Dialyse Péritonéale de Langue Française (RDPLF Registry) is a non-profit association that has been set up to assist physicians and nurses in evaluating their practical experience and results regarding peritoneal dialysis (PD). Five French-speaking and two Spanish-speaking countries have participated in this initiative (which includes 21 000 patients). In France, 82% of all PD patients are included in the registry and the main results for the period from 1995 to January 2006 form the basis of this report: of 11 744 incident patients with a median age of 71 years, 21.5% were over 80 years of age and 56% were not able to perform PD treatment at home without assistance. Eighty-six percent of the latter group received external assistance from a private nurse and 14% were aided by their family. The overall average rate of peritonitis was one episode every 29 months. The probability of being peritonitis-free appeared to be better for patients on automated PD (59.4% at 2 year) than for those on continuous ambulatory PD (55.3%), but this finding requires further validation. The average waiting time before transplantation was about 2 years. In patients who had undergone transplantation, the peritonitis rate was one episode per 42 months before transplantation compared to one episode per 29 months for patients who had not received a transplant. Eighty-three percent of patients had a hemoglobin level greater than 11 g%. Catheter survival was 92% at 2 years post-insertion and 85% at 5 years, with 94% being implanted by experienced surgeons. In conclusion, the RDPLF results demonstrate that PD may be successfully prescribed for older patients who receive assistance either from their family or from a nurse. Further, a larger number of younger patients should also be prescribed this technique in France. Patients eligible for transplantation and on short-term PD have the lowest risk of developing peritonitis; PD before transplantation may help prolong residual renal function, and initial treatment by PD may also help to preserve vascular access for the future.