Microbiology and outcomes of peritonitis in North America

Kidney Int Suppl. 2006 Nov;(103):S55-62. doi: 10.1038/sj.ki.5001916.


A proper understanding of the patterns of occurrence of infectious complications in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is crucial to lay the foundation for interventions directed at the major causes and predisposing factors. The present work is an initial report of a survey based on a large representative database of the infectious complications of PD. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 62% of peritonitis episodes in the US and 61% of these episodes in Canada. Gram-negative organisms accounted for 20.5% of episodes in the US and 23.6% of episodes in Canada. The peritoneal catheter was removed in 18% of the episodes in the US and 16% in Canada. Less than 4% of the episodes resulted in death. Gram-positive organisms accounted for the majority of exit-site infections in the US (69%) and Canada (76%). Gram-negative organisms accounted for a third of exit-site infections and among Gram-negative organisms Pseudomonas was the overwhelmingly dominant organism. The microbiology of exit-site infections revealed the expected representation of Gram-positive organisms. An important finding, however, is the significantly high contribution of Gram-negative organisms. Our findings can inform future guideline development and suggest that similar endeavors be undertaken in other parts of the world.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Canada / epidemiology
  • Databases, Factual
  • Female
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / epidemiology*
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peritoneal Dialysis / adverse effects
  • Peritoneal Dialysis / statistics & numerical data*
  • Peritonitis / epidemiology*
  • United States / epidemiology