Surgery and chemotherapy form the cornerstone of the treatment for ovarian cancer. Currently, the standard of care for primary ovarian cancer is platinum and taxane-based therapy. Even among women with advanced and suboptimal disease (i.e. tumors greater than 1 cm) following surgery, the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy is noteworthy. Despite the favorable response characteristics, however, most women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer will relapse, including about 50% of women who have no evidence of disease after primary therapy. A multitude of treatment options are available at the time of recurrence, but there is no clear consensus about how these patients should be managed. Options include surgery, chemotherapy, hormones, and sometimes, radiation therapy. The sequence, combinations of treatment, and manner in which any or all of these options should be employed in an individual patient, which heretofore have not been standardized, are the subjects of ongoing clinical investigations.