Glycoproteome profiling of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling: nonglycosylated cell death-inducing DFF-like effector A inhibits TGFbeta1-dependent apoptosis

Proteomics. 2006 Dec;6(23):6168-80. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200600384.


Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) is a potent regulator of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. TGFbeta binds to specific serine/threonine kinase receptors, which leads to activation of Smad-dependent and Smad-independent signaling pathways. O-Glycosylation is a dynamic PTM which has been observed in many regulatory proteins, but has not been studied in the context of TGFbeta signaling. To explore the effect of TGFbeta1 on protein O-glycosylation in human breast epithelial cells, we performed analyses of proteins which were affinity purified with Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA). HPA lectin allowed enrichment of proteins containing GalNAc and GlcNAc linked to serine and threonine residues. Using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS, we identified 21 HPA-precipitated proteins, which were affected by treatment of cells with TGFbeta1. Among these proteins, regulators of cell survival, apoptosis, trafficking, and RNA processing were identified. We found that TGFbeta1 inhibited the appearance of cell death-inducing DFF-like effector A (CIDE-A) in 2-D gels with HPA-precipitated proteins. CIDE-A is a cell death activator which promotes DNA fragmentation. We observed that TGFbeta1 did not affect expression of CIDE-A, but inhibited its glycosylation. We found that deglycosylation of CIDE-A correlated with enhanced nuclear export of the protein, and that high level of nonglycosylated CIDE-A inhibited TGFbeta1-dependent cell death. Thus, inhibition of the glycosylation of CIDE-A may be a mechanism to protect cells from apoptosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / physiology*
  • Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Glycosylation
  • Humans
  • Lectins / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology*


  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • CIDEA protein, human
  • Helix lectin
  • Lectins
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta