Anatomical and functional studies support segregation of the hippocampus into ventral and dorsal components along its septotemporal axis. However, it is unknown whether the development of these two components of the hippocampus is influenced by common or separate genetic factors. In this study, we used recombinant inbred strains of mice to determine whether the same or different quantitative trait loci (QTL) influence ventral and dorsal hippocampal volume. Using two sets of strains of recombinant inbred mice (BXD and AXB/BXA), we identified separate QTLs for ventral and dorsal hippocampal volume. In BXD mice, suggestive QTLs for ventral hippocampus were identified on chromosomes 2, 8 and 13, and a significant QTL for dorsal hippocampal volume was identified on chromosome 15. There was also a suggestive QTL for dorsal hippocampal volume on chromosome 13. In AXB/BXA mice, there were no significant or suggestive QTLs for ventral hippocampal volume, but a significant QTL for dorsal hippocampus was identified on chromosome 5. These findings suggest that the development of the ventral and dorsal components of the hippocampus is influenced by separate genetic loci.