Objective: To investigate the safety of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNCs) transplantation by intracoronary infusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Methods: One hundred and eighty-four patients with AMI treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized in a 1:1 way to either intracoronary transplantation of autologous BM-MNCs (n = 92) right after PCI or to sodium chloride concluding heparin (controlled, n = 92) via a micro infusion catheter. In the process of the intracoronary infusion of BM-MNCs, the complications should be recorded, which were aberration reflect (including of pale, syncope, nausea, hypotension and shock), deterioration of angina or heart failure, arrhythmias (including of bradycardia, sinus arrest or atrial ventricular block or ventricular fibrillation), embolism etc. Body temperature, blood pressure and heart rates should be monitored during the first week after transplantation. Holter, coronary angiography and ultrasonic cardiography were performed at the designed time points. Main heart accidents, restenosis and tumor were recorded during 2-years follow up.
Results: During the period of bone marrow puncture and intracoronary infusion of BM-MNCs, few patients occurred pale, dizziness, bradycardia and hypotension, which were transient and due to vagus reflect. No stem cell-related arrhythmias, deterioration of angina were noted. In BM-MNCs group one patient developed in-stent reocclusion in one week after transplantation, five developed in-stent restenosis during further follow-up 30 months, which were similar with control group. There were no deaths, major adverse cardiac events, tumor and other late adverse events during follow-up period in both groups.
Conclusion: Intracoronary transplantation of autologous BM-MNCs in the acute phase after AMI is feasible and seems safe in the 30 months of follow-up.