The purpose of the study was to evaluate the agonist and antagonist stimulus properties of the mixed opioid agonist antagonists butorphanol and nalbuphine in opioid-dependent subjects. Opioid-dependent volunteers (methadone 30 mg/day, PO) were trained in a three-choice drug discrimination procedure to discriminate between the effects of saline (2 ml), hydromorphone (10 mg/70 kg) and naloxone (0.15 mg/70 kg) administered IM. Subjects earned monetary reinforcement for correctly identifying the training drugs by letter code. Other subjective, behavioral and physiological measures were also collected. Hydromorphone and naloxone increased drug-appropriate responses and other characteristic subjective effects measures. Butorphanol and nalbuphine produced increases in naloxone-appropriate discrimination responding and in those subjective effect measures increased by naloxone. Butorphanol produced greater than 80% naloxone-appropriate responding at 1.05 mg/70 kg; nalbuphine produced 100% naloxone-appropriate responding at 2.1 mg/70 kg. Neither butorphanol nor nalbuphine showed opioid agonist-like effects in these subjects maintained at moderate levels of physical dependence. In opioid-dependent subjects, the stimulus effects of butorphanol and nalbuphine are antagonist-like.