Formyl peptide receptors: a promiscuous subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors controlling immune responses

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2006 Dec;17(6):501-19. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2006.09.009. Epub 2006 Nov 2.


The formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family is involved in host defence against pathogens, but also in sensing internal molecules that may constitute signals of cellular dysfunction. It includes three subtypes in human and other primates. FPR responds to formyl peptides derived from bacterial and mitochondrial proteins. FPRL1 displays a large array of exogenous and endogenous ligands, including the chemokine variant sCKbeta8-1, the neuroprotective peptide humanin, and lipoxin A4. Two high affinity agonists (F2L and humanin) were recently described for FPRL2. In mouse, eight FPR-related receptors have been described. Fpr1 is the ortholog of human FPR, while fpr2 appears to share many ligands with human FPRL1. Altogether, the physiological role of the FPR family is still incompletely understood, due in part to the large variety of ligands, the redundancy with other chemoattractant agents, and the lack of clear orthologs between human and mouse receptors. Newly developed tools will allow to study further this family of receptors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phylogeny
  • Receptors, Formyl Peptide / classification
  • Receptors, Formyl Peptide / genetics
  • Receptors, Formyl Peptide / immunology*
  • Receptors, Lipoxin / immunology
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tissue Distribution


  • FPR2 protein, human
  • Ligands
  • Receptors, Formyl Peptide
  • Receptors, Lipoxin
  • formyl peptide receptor 2, mouse