Purpose: On a routine basis we performed systematic molecular screening for FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in 121 bladder tumors. We then specifically analyzed the predictive value of the recurrence of FGFR3 and TP53 genotypes in superficial lesions.
Materials and methods: The FGFR3 gene was analyzed by direct sequencing of exons 7, 10 and 15, whereas TP53 status was determined using the p53 functional assay in yeast.
Results: We identified a missense FGFR3 mutation in 66% of pTa, 26% of pT1 and 12% of pT2 tumors. Of activating FGFR3 mutations 54% and 85% were found in low G1 and intermediate G2 grade tumors, respectively, but in only 20% of high grade G3 tumors. We detected inactivating TP53 mutations in 10% of pTa, 42% of pT1 and 58% of pT2 tumors. Moreover, TP53 mutations were found only in 23% of grade G1 and 3% of grade G2 tumors but in 44% of high grade G3 tumors. When the 2 genotypes were combined, we observed that 58% of pTa tumors had the (mutant FGFR3, WT TP53) genotype, whereas 58% of invasive lesions harbored the inverse genotype (WT FGFR3, mutant TP53). The (mutant FGFR3, WT TP53) genotype and the (WT FGFR3, mutant TP53) genotype were detected in 23% and 38% of pT1G3 tumors, respectively. In the subgroup of 92 patients with superficial pTa-T1 bladder tumors we did not find that the TP53 or FGFR3 genotype alone or combined had a predictive value for tumor recurrence.
Conclusions: Our data again represent solid proof for the pivotal role of FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in superficial and invasive bladder tumors, respectively. However, other molecular markers should be identified for borderline pT1G3 bladder tumors, which are probably at the crossroads of these 2 distinct molecular pathways.