One of the responses of plants to low sources of external phosphorus (P) is to modify root architecture. In Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets grown on low P, the primary root length (PRL) is reduced whereas lateral root growth is promoted. By using the Bay-0 x Shahdara recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we have mapped three quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the root growth response to low P. The Shahdara alleles at these three QTL promote the response of the primary root to low P (i.e., root length reduction). One of these QTL, LPR1, located in a 2.8 Mb region at the top of chromosome 1, explains 52% of the variance of the PRL. We also detected a single QTL associated with primary root cell elongation in response to low P which colocalizes with LPR1. LPR1 does not seem to be involved in other typical P-starvation responses such as growth and density of root hairs, excretion of acid phosphatases, anthocyanin accumulation or the transcriptional induction of the P transporter Phtl;4. LPR1 might highlight new aspects of root growth that are revealed specifically under low P conditions.