Influences on circulating oestrogens in postmenopausal women: relationship with breast cancer

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Feb;103(2):99-109. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.07.011. Epub 2006 Nov 7.


Sex hormones are intrinsically linked to the development and treatment of the majority of breast cancers. High oestradiol levels are associated with elevated breast cancer risk in the postmenopausal setting and are given increasing importance in determining chemoprevention target groups. This review aims to evaluate the impact of various lifestyle factors including body mass index, diet, smoking, and alcohol on normal physiological sex hormone profiles. The role of genetic polymorphisms is also discussed, and all are placed within the context of designing future epidemiological studies and breast cancer risk algorithms.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / blood*
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics
  • Estrogens / blood*
  • Estrogens / metabolism
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Models, Biological
  • Postmenopause / blood*


  • Estrogens
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones