It is generally accepted that T regulatory cells (T(reg) CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)) play an important role in the suppression of tumour immunity. We examined the impact of T(reg) cell depletion with anti-CD25 antibody as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of minimal residual disease after excision of murine HPV16-associated tumours. We found that the depletion of T(reg) cells inhibited growth of the recurrences after surgery of HPV16-associated MHC class I+ as well as MHC class I-deficient tumours transplanted in syngeneic mice. These results demonstrate that depletion of CD25(+)CD4(+) T(reg) cells can be used as an efficient adjuvant treatment improving the results of surgery in the experimental systems mimicking human MHC class I+ and MHC class I-deficient, HPV16-associated neoplasms. Therefore, this therapeutic modality is worth being examined in patients with minimal residual HPV16-associated tumour disease after surgery.