This report describes the antigenic profile of the proliferating cells of pulmonary histiocytosis X (HX) in a patient treated with chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma; the association of pulmonary HX and Hodgkin's disease has rarely been described in the literature. The histopathological diagnosis of HX was confirmed with the aid of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CD4, CD1a, and polyclonal serum anti S-100 protein. The phenotype of HX cells has been analysed using a panel of mAbs against HLA class I A, B, C monomorphic determinants, locus A and B, beta 2-microglobulin, HLA class II distinct monomorphic determinants, DP, DQ, DR, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vitronectin receptors. Our results indicate that HX cells express HLA class I and II, including locus A, locus B and DP, DQ, DR, like their normal counterpart (represented by Langerhans cells) and detectable levels of ICAM-1 but not vitronectin receptors. We would like to stress the possibility of the association of HX and Hodgkin's lymphoma extending the immunophenotypic profile of HX cells.