Microleakage beneath ceramic and metal brackets bonded with a conventional and an antibacterial adhesive system

Angle Orthod. 2006 Nov;76(6):1028-34. doi: 10.2319/101805-368.


Objective: To assess microleakage of a tooth-adhesive-bracket complex when metal or ceramic brackets were bonded with a conventional and an antibacterial self-etching adhesive.

Materials and methods: Forty freshly extracted human premolars were randomly assigned to four equal groups and received the following treatments: group 1 = Transbond XT + metal bracket, group 2 = Transbond XT + ceramic bracket, group 3 = Clearfil Protect Bond + ceramic bracket, and group 4 = Clearfil Protect Bond + metal bracket. After photopolymerization, the teeth were kept in distilled water for 1 month and thereafter subjected to thermal cycling (500 cycles). Specimens were further sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for marginal microleakage for the adhesive-tooth and bracket-adhesive interfaces from incisal and gingival margins. Statistical analysis was accomplished by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction.

Results: All groups demonstrated microleakage between the adhesive-enamel and bracket-adhesive interfaces. A significant difference was observed among all groups (P < .05) for the microleakage between the bracket-adhesive interface. Metal brackets exhibited significantly more microleakage than did ceramic brackets between the bracket-adhesive interface with either of the adhesives. Clearfil Protect Bond exhibited results similar to Transbond XT. Clearfil Protect Bond may be a choice of adhesive in bracket bonding because of its antibacterial activity and similar microleakage results with the orthodontic adhesive.

Conclusions: Metal brackets cause more leakage between an adhesive-bracket interface, which may lead to lower clinical shear bond strength and white-spot lesions.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Bicuspid
  • Cariostatic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Ceramics
  • Dental Bonding / methods
  • Dental Leakage / etiology
  • Dental Leakage / prevention & control*
  • Dentin-Bonding Agents / chemistry
  • Dentin-Bonding Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Materials Testing
  • Metals
  • Orthodontic Appliance Design*
  • Orthodontic Brackets / adverse effects*
  • Resin Cements / chemistry
  • Resin Cements / therapeutic use*
  • Sodium Fluoride / administration & dosage
  • Statistics, Nonparametric


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Clearfil Protect Bond
  • Dentin-Bonding Agents
  • Metals
  • Resin Cements
  • Transbond XT
  • Sodium Fluoride