Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Comparative Study
, 33 (1), 133-6

Entropy Is More Resistant to Artifacts Than Bispectral Index in Brain-Dead Organ Donors

Comparative Study

Entropy Is More Resistant to Artifacts Than Bispectral Index in Brain-Dead Organ Donors

Johanna Wennervirta et al. Intensive Care Med.


Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of entropy and the bispectral index (BIS) in brain-dead subjects.

Design and setting: A prospective, open, nonselective, observational study in the university hospital.

Patients and participants: 16 brain-dead organ donors.

Interventions: Time-domain electroencephalography (EEG), spectral entropy of the EEG, and BIS were recorded during solid organ harvest.

Measurements and results: State entropy differed significantly from 0 (isoelectric EEG) 28%, response entropy 29%, and BIS 68% of the total recorded time. The median values during the operation were state entropy 0.0, response entropy 0.0, and BIS 3.0. In four of 16 organ donors studied the EEG was not isoelectric, and nonreactive rhythmic activity was noted in time-domain EEG. After excluding the results from subjects with persistent residual EEG activity state entropy, response entropy, and BIS values differed from zero 17%, 18%, and 62% of the recorded time, respectively. Median values were 0.0, 0.0, and 2.0 for state entropy, response entropy, and BIS, respectively. The highest index values in entropy and BIS monitoring were recorded without neuromuscular blockade. The main sources of artifacts were electrocauterization, 50-Hz artifact, handling of the donor, ballistocardiography, electromyography, and electrocardiography.

Conclusion: Both entropy and BIS showed nonzero values due to artifacts after brain death diagnosis. BIS was more liable to artifacts than entropy. Neither of these indices are diagnostic tools, and care should be taken when interpreting EEG and EEG-derived indices in the evaluation of brain death.

Comment in

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 8 articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. Arch Neurol. 1987 Sep;44(9):948-54 - PubMed
    1. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul;99(1):9-17 - PubMed
    1. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2004 Feb;48(2):154-61 - PubMed
    1. Intensive Care Med. 2002 Apr;28(4):419-25 - PubMed
    1. Anesth Analg. 2006 Jan;102(1):160-7 - PubMed

Publication types