Phase I trial of oral MAC-321 in subjects with advanced malignant solid tumors

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;60(2):203-9. doi: 10.1007/s00280-006-0362-y. Epub 2006 Nov 8.


Purpose: MAC-321 is a novel taxane that has demonstrated exceptional activity in human xenograft models when administered intravenously and orally. Preclinical studies of MAC-321 have shown antitumor activity in MDR-expressing and paclitaxel-resistant tumors. This phase I dose escalation study was performed to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered MAC-321 given once every 21 days. Preliminary antitumor activity of MAC-321 was also examined.

Methods: Key eligibility criteria included adult subjects with refractory solid tumors or solid tumors for which conventional therapy was unsuitable or did not exist, good performance status (ECOG ( 2), and adequate hematologic, hepatic, and renal functions. Plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling was performed during the first cycle of therapy.

Results: Five dose levels of MAC-321 ranging from 25 to 75 mg/m(2) were evaluated in 18 subjects (four women and 14 men). MAC-321 was well tolerated at the first three dose levels (25, 37, 50 mg/m(2)). Two subjects developed dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at 75 mg/m(2); one subject with grade 3 and one subject with grade 4 neutropenia with fever. Three subjects treated at an intermediate dose level of 60 mg/m(2) had no DLTs. However, the study was terminated prior to completion of the maximal tolerated dose cohort after subjects treated with intravenous MAC-321 in a concurrent study experienced life-threatening toxicities. Other common toxicities included grades 1-2 fatigue and grades 1-2 diarrhea. There was substantial interpatient variability in the PK parameters. MAC-321 was rapidly absorbed with a mean C (max) value of less than 1 h. Mean C (max) and AUC values generally increased in a dose-related manner. The median terminal phase elimination half-life was 45 h (range 20-228 h). Disease stabilization was seen in four subjects with the following tumors: mesothelioma (14 cycles), chondrosarcoma (12 cycles), small cell carcinoma (10 cycles), and prostate carcinoma (6 cycles).

Conclusions: MAC-321 can be safely administered orally once every 21 days up to a dose of 60 mg/m(2). The major DLT was neutropenic fever. Four subjects had disease stabilization.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacokinetics
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use*
  • Area Under Curve
  • Biological Availability
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Fever / chemically induced
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neutropenia / chemically induced
  • Paclitaxel / adverse effects
  • Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives*
  • Paclitaxel / pharmacokinetics
  • Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • MAC321
  • Paclitaxel