Beautiful balanced faces. The first 9 years: the most critical time!

Int J Orthod Milwaukee. Fall 2006;17(3):13-22.


This article is a review of the literature presented over the past 150 years regarding the implications of airway obstructions. A practical approach is presented and directed to understanding growth and development of children from infancy through adulthood. Emphasis is placed on the first nine years of a child's life. The author believes that early intervention and control of airway obstruction will enhance the lives of children who have obstructed airways. Studies have been cited as well as cases presented verifying the authenticity of the material.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Airway Obstruction / complications
  • Airway Obstruction / physiopathology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Esthetics*
  • Face / anatomy & histology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Maxillofacial Development / physiology*