Effects of different inulin-type fructan fractions were studied on atherosclerotic plaque formation in male apo E-deficient mice. Thirty-two mice were randomly divided into four groups and received either a semi-purified sucrose-based diet (control group), or diets in which sucrose was replaced in part by various inulin-type fructans (10 g/100 g): long-chain inulin, oligofructose, or an oligofructose-enriched inulin for 16 weeks. The presence of atherosclerotic plaques was assessed by histomorphometry in the aortic sinus. The apo E-deficient mice fed long-chain inulin or an oligofructose-enriched inulin had about 35 % and 25 % less atherosclerotic lesion area compared with the control group, respectively. Feeding long-chain inulin significantly reduced plasma cholesterol concentrations (P<0.001), and the three inulin-type fructans reduced triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared with the control group (P<0.001). Both the long-chain inulin and an oligofructose-enriched inulin significantly lowered hepatic cholesterol concentrations compared with the control diet (P<0.05). Hepatic TAG concentrations were significantly lower in all three groups fed the fructan-supplemented diets v. the control group (P<0.0001). The results of the present study suggest that inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque formation is more potent in the presence of long-chain inulin, either alone or in combination with oligofructose (an oligofructose-enriched inulin), and that this probably is related to changes in lipid metabolism.