Macrolide resistance

Drug Resist Updat. 1998 Mar;1(1):29-41. doi: 10.1016/s1368-7646(98)80212-4.


The macrolides have evolved through four chemical generations since erythromycin became available for clinical use in 1952. The first generation, the 14-membered ring macrolide erythromycin, induced resistance and was replaced by the second generation 16-membered ring macrolides which did not. The inability to induce came at the price of mutation, in the pathogenic target strain, to constitutive expression of resistance. A third generation of macrolides improved the acid-stability, and therefore the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin, extending the clinical use of macrolides to Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Improved pharmacokinetics resulted in the selection of intrinsically resistant mutant strains with rRNA structural alterations. Expression of resistance in these strains was unexpected, explainable by low rRNA gene copy number which made resistance dominant. A fourth generation of macrolides, the 14-membered ring ketolides are the most recent development. Members of this generation are reported to be effective against inducibly resistant strains, and ketolide resistant strains have not yet been reported. In this review we discuss details of the ways in which bacteria have become resistant to the first three generations of macrolides, both with respect to their biochemistry, and the genetic mechanisms by which their expression is regulated.