The Smoking Stroop and Delay Discounting in Smokers: Effects of Environmental Smoking Cues

J Psychopharmacol. 2007 Aug;21(6):603-10. doi: 10.1177/0269881106070995. Epub 2006 Nov 8.


We investigated the effects of exposure to environmental smoking-related cues (holding a lit cigarette in an environment previously associated with smoking) on cigarette craving, colour naming of smoking-related words in a modified Stroop task, and on the delay discounting of hypothetical rewards, in daily cigarette smokers (N = 30). Compared to exposure to neutral cues, exposure to smoking-related cues was associated with increased cigarette craving and slower colour naming of smoking-related compared to matched control words. However, smoking cues had no effect on delay discounting. These results suggest that smoking cues increase craving and the ability of smoking-related words to grab the attention, but do not influence impulsive decision-making. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attention*
  • Behavior, Addictive*
  • Cues*
  • Decision Making*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reaction Time
  • Reinforcement, Psychology
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology*
  • Token Economy