Objective: To evaluate the management and outcomes of a series of human immunodeficiency virus-(HIV-) infected women whose pregnancies were complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM).
Study design: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all women with confirmed HIV infection who had a pregnancy complicated by PPROM remote from term. PPROM remote from term was defined as rupture of membranes prior to 32-week gestation. Collective cases from two centers (Hennepin County Medical Center and The University of Alabama at Birmingham) were reviewed and data on management and outcomes were abstracted.
Results: Of the HIV-positive women, we identified 291 pregnancies having occurred in the study interval from two institutions. Of these pregnancies, 7 (2.4%) developed PPROM remote from term with subsequent delivery from 25- to 32-week gestation. Vertical HIV transmission was noted in 2 of 6 children whose long-term followup status was confirmed (33%) of these cases. However, both of these cases occurred in women with either no antepartum/intrapartum antiviral therapy or where only zidovudine monotherapy was used. Importantly, in spite of expectant management, no cases of vertical HIV transmission occurred in women who were receiving either multidrug or highly active antiviral therapy (HAART) at the time of PPROM and who had a cesarean delivery in cases where the predelivery viral load > 1000 copies/mL.
Conclusion: Our limited observations raise the question as to whether in the current era of multidrug therapy immediate delivery should be undertaken in HIV+ pregnancies complicated by PPROM at an early gestational age. This case series further suggests that in those pregnancies that lend themselves to expectant management, such a strategy may be considered appropriate.