Objectives: To describe the modified technique and results of extensive transperineal template prostate biopsies in men with a high risk of prostate cancer in whom repeated transrectal biopsies are not diagnostic.
Methods: Men who had a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and had at least two sets of benign octant biopsies or two or more prior biopsies containing high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypical small acinar proliferation were included. A biplanar transrectal ultrasound probe was attached to a brachytherapy stepping unit and a standard 0.5-cm brachytherapy template was positioned over the perineum. In the transverse image, the prostate was divided into right and left and anterior, middle, and posterior regions, and three to five transperineal biopsy cores were taken in each of the six regions through the template.
Results: Sixty men underwent extensive transperineal template biopsies. Their mean age was 64 years (SD 6.4), the median PSA level was 12.9 ng/mL (range 4.6 to 35.7), and the median prostate volume was 54 cm3 (range 34 to 199). Cancer was detected in 23 men (38%), of whom 17 (74%) had Gleason grade 6, 5 (21%) Gleason grade 7, and 1 (4%) Gleason grade 9 disease. Cancer was identified in the anterior region of the prostate alone in 12 men (60%). One man required overnight admission for hematuria and two developed urinary retention; no cases of sepsis developed.
Conclusions: In men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer, but benign or equivocal prostate biopsies, extensive transperineal template biopsy of the prostate is a useful diagnostic tool. It allows sampling of the whole prostate in a systematic and safe fashion.