Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central etiologic factor for cervical cancer, and prior studies suggested C. trachomatis may act as an HPV cofactor. We examined the C. trachomatis-cervical cancer association by serotype, histology, HPV type in the tumor, and other HPV cofactors. We conducted a population-based study in the Seattle-Puget Sound area of 302 women with invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 185 women with adenocarcinomas of the cervix (AC), and 318 HPV seropositive control women. The risk of SCC associated with antibodies to C. trachomatis was increased (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) but not for AC (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.5). This association was independent of HPV type in the SCC tumor tissue. There was an association between specific serotypes of C. trachomatis and SCC for 6 of the 10 serotypes: B (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.5-8.4), D (OR 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2-3.5), E (OR 2.4, 95% CI, 1.4-3.9), G (OR 3.0, 95% CI, 1.1-7.9), I (OR 4.2, 95% CI, 1.5-11.7), and J (OR 2.3, 95% CI, 1.0-5.1), but not for the 4 types (C, F, H, and K) that were present at very low prevalence in this population. There was an increased risk of SCC, but not AC, associated with antibodies to C. trachomatis that was not serotype specific.