Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption produce changes in hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression. This difference in expression alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants and therapeutic agents, potentially impacting the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, and/or resulting in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory has reported that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6 kinase). Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control.