Objective: To review research on sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) after the year 2000.
Method: The review included 53 published studies that reported on unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys of HIV-positive MSM and MSM of mixed HIV status.
Results: The findings indicate high levels of UAI among HIV-positive MSM, particularly with HIV-negative or HIV status unknown partners. In studies of MSM of mixed HIV status, we found that the rate of UAI among HIV-positive MSM was much higher than that of HIV-negative MSM. Furthermore, the prevalence of UAI among HIV-positive MSM has increased in recent years.
Conclusion: Although studies indicate that HIV-positive MSM have adopted risk reduction strategies, roughly two in five HIV-positive MSM continue to engage in UAI, which represents a risk for continued HIV and STI (sexually transmitted infection) transmission.
Practice implications: Prevention efforts targeting HIV-positive MSM to assist them in adopting and maintaining safer sexual behaviors need to be intensified.