Exercise intolerance in adults with congenital heart disease

Cardiol Clin. 2006 Nov;24(4):641-60, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.ccl.2006.08.002.


This article describes the ways to assess exercise capacity in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) and the impact of exercise intolerance in the population. It also discusses the likely pathogenesis of exercise intolerance in ACHD, the similarities between ACHD and acquired heart failure, and potential therapeutic options.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Baroreflex
  • Cyanosis / physiopathology
  • Cytokines / physiology
  • Exercise Test / methods
  • Exercise Therapy
  • Exercise Tolerance / physiology*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / complications
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology*
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • Pulmonary Ventilation / physiology


  • Cytokines