A stronger DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint due to over-activated CHK1 in the absence of PARP-1

Cell Cycle. 2006 Oct;5(20):2364-70. doi: 10.4161/cc.5.20.3355. Epub 2006 Oct 16.


Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is involved in multi-pathways to respond to DNA damage. Lack of or inhibition of PARP-1 activity leads to slow progress of cell cycle and sensitization of cells to different stresses. Recently, it was reported that besides the Ku dependent main nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, there is a PARP-1 dependent complementary NHEJ pathway to repair DNA double strand break (DSB). Here we show that compared with PARP-1+/+ cells, PARP-1-/- cells display a much stronger G2 checkpoint response following ionizing radiation (IR). Treatment with Chk1 siRNA abolishes the stronger G2 checkpoint response and sensitizes PARP-1-/- cells to IR. These data indicate that the stronger G2 checkpoint response in PARP-1-/- cells is CHK1 dependent, which protects cells from IR induced killing. We also show that 4-Amino-1,8-naphthalimide (4-AN, inhibitor of PARP) but not methoxyamine (inhibitor of base excision repair (BER)), affects IR induced G2 arrest and cell sensitivity in PARP-1+/+ cells, resulting in the phenotypes similar to those of PARP-1-/- cells. These results indicate that DSB repair from the complementary NHEJ pathway of PARP-1, but not single strand break (SSB) repair from the BER function of PARP-1, may play an essential role in the over-activated CHK1 regulated G2 checkpoint response and radiosensitivity in PARP-1-/- cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 1-Naphthylamine / analogs & derivatives
  • 1-Naphthylamine / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology
  • Cell Line
  • Checkpoint Kinase 1
  • DNA Damage*
  • DNA Repair
  • G2 Phase / radiation effects*
  • Hydroxylamines / pharmacology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Naphthalimides / pharmacology
  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / deficiency*
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Protein Kinases / physiology*
  • Quinolones / pharmacology
  • Radiation, Ionizing


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Hydroxylamines
  • Naphthalimides
  • Quinolones
  • 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide
  • 1-Naphthylamine
  • methoxyamine
  • Parp1 protein, mouse
  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
  • Protein Kinases
  • Checkpoint Kinase 1
  • Chek1 protein, mouse