In July 2003, the Food and Drug Administration approved palonosetron hydrochloride injection for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The newest agent in the class of 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists (5-HT₃RAs), palonosetron differs from other agents in its class by its higher receptor-binding affinity and longer half-life. These pharmacological properties have resulted in improved antiemetic activity in clinical trials, particularly in the treatment of delayed CINV following moderate emetogenic chemotherapy. Based on the results of these clinical studies, palonosetron is the only 5-HT₃RA approved for delayed CINV. Palonosetron is given as a single 0.25-mg intravenous dose 30 minutes before the initial dose of chemotherapy. Headache and constipation were the most common adverse events reported with palonosetron therapy.