The purpose of this analysis was to determine if significant associations could be observed between prenatal/postnatal blood lead (PbB) levels and the cognitive development of 258 urban, inner-city children at 4 years of age. These children have been followed since birth with frequent assessments of general health, PbB, and neuropsychological status. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) was administered at approximately 4 years of age. Higher neonatal PbB levels were associated with poorer performance on all K-ABC subscales. However, this inverse association was limited to children from the poorest families. Maternal PbB levels were unrelated to 4-year cognitive status. Few statistically significant associations between postnatal PbB levels and K-ABC scales could be found. However, the results did suggest a weak inverse relationship between postnatal PbB levels and performance on a K-ABC subscale which assesses visual-spatial and visual-motor integration skills. In these results we note both contradiction and accord with previously published prospective studies.