We reviewed the records of patients with cancer who had Scedosporium infection (due to Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans in 21 and 4 patients, respectively). The incidence of Scedosporium infection increased from 0.82 cases per 100,000 patient-inpatient days (in 1993-1998) to 1.33 cases per 100,000 patient-inpatient days (in 1999-2005). Cases of S. prolificans infection occurred only after 2000. Dissemination occurred in 16 patients (64%). The 12-week mortality rates were 70% and 100% for S. apiospermum and S. prolificans infection, respectively.