How to deal with multiple endpoints in clinical trials

Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;20(6):515-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2006.00437.x.


Multiple endpoints are common in clinical trials. This article discusses statistical methods that can be applied to control the rate of false positive conclusions at an acceptable level. The considered methods include the Bonferroni adjustment and related methods, the intersection-union test, ordered hypotheses and gatekeeper procedures, composite endpoints and global assessment measures, closed testing procedures, and combinations of different approaches.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials as Topic / methods*
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Endpoint Determination / methods*
  • Humans
  • Models, Statistical
  • Research Design*