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Review
. 2006 Nov 16;1:46.
doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-46.

Bernard-Soulier Syndrome (Hemorrhagiparous Thrombocytic Dystrophy)

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Free PMC article
Review

Bernard-Soulier Syndrome (Hemorrhagiparous Thrombocytic Dystrophy)

François Lanza. Orphanet J Rare Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS), also known as Hemorrhagiparous thrombocytic dystrophy, is a hereditary bleeding disorder affecting the megakaryocyte/platelet lineage and characterized by bleeding tendency, giant blood platelets and low platelet counts. This syndrome is extremely rare as only approximately 100 cases have been reported in the literature. Clinical manifestations usually include purpura, epistaxis, menorrhagia, gingival and gastrointestinal bleeding. The syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The underlying defect is a deficiency or dysfunction of the glycoprotein GPIb-V-IX complex, a platelet-restricted multisubunit receptor required for normal primary hemostasis. The GPIb-V-IX complex binds von Willebrand factor, allowing platelet adhesion and platelet plug formation at sites of vascular injury. Genes coding for the four subunits of the receptor, GPIBA, GPIBB, GP5 and GP9, map to chromosomes 17p12, 22q11.2, 3q29, and 3q21, respectively. Defects have been identified in GPIBA, GPIBB, and GP9 but not in GP5. Diagnosis is based on a prolonged skin bleeding time, the presence of a small number of very large platelets (macrothrombocytopenia), defective ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination and low or absent expression of the GPIb-V-IX complex. Prothrombin consumption is markedly reduced. The prognosis is usually good with adequate supportive care but severe bleeding episodes can occur with menses, trauma and surgical procedures. Treatment of bleeding or prophylaxis during surgical procedures usually requires platelet transfusion.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
The platelet GPIb-V-IX complex.

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