Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is involved in nucleo some assembly following DNA replication and nucleotide excision repair. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three CAF-1 subunits are encoded by FAS1, FAS2 and, most likely, MSI1, respectively. In this study, we asked whether genomic stability is altered in fas1 and fas2 mutants that are lacking CAF-1 activity. Depletion of either subunit increased the frequency of somatic homologous recombination (HR) in planta approximately 40-fold. The frequency of transferred DNA (T-DNA) integration was also elevated. A delay in loading histones onto newly replicated or repaired DNA might make these DNA stretches more accessible, both to repair enzymes and to foreign DNA. Furthermore, fas mutants exhibited increased levels of DNA double-strand breaks, a G2-phase retardation that accelerates endoreduplication, and elevated levels of mRNAs coding for proteins involved in HR-all factors that could also contribute to upregulation of HR frequency in fas mutants.