Stress and depression in the employed population

Health Rep. 2006 Oct;17(4):11-29.


Objectives: This article describes stress levels among the employed population aged 18 to 75 and examines associations between stress and depression.

Data sources: Data are from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-being and the longitudinal component of the 1994/95 through 2002/03 National Population Health Survey.

Analytical techniques: Stress levels were calculated by sex, age and employment characteristics. Multivariate analyses were used to examine associations between stress and depression in 2002, and between stress and incident depression over a two-year period, while controlling for age, employment characteristics, and factors originating outside the workplace.

Main results: In 2002, women reported higher levels of job strain and general day-to-day stress. When the various sources of stress were considered simultaneously, along with other possible confounders, for both sexes, high levels of general day-to-day stress and low levels of co-worker support were associated with higher odds of depression, as was high job strain for men. Over a two-year period, men with high strain jobs and women with high personal stress and low co-worker support had elevated odds of incident depression.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Canada / epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Employment / psychology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Job Satisfaction*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Occupational Health*
  • Occupations
  • Odds Ratio
  • Sex Factors
  • Stress, Psychological / epidemiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Work Schedule Tolerance*
  • Workload / psychology