The Genetics of Generalized Osteoarthritis (GOGO) study: study design and evaluation of osteoarthritis phenotypes

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Feb;15(2):120-7. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2006.10.002. Epub 2006 Nov 17.


Purpose: The primary goal of the Genetics of Generalized Osteoarthritis (GOGO) study is to identify chromosomal regions associated with increased susceptibility to generalized osteoarthritis (OA). Here we describe the study design and phenotype of the 2728 participants from the 1145 families recruited for this study.

Methods: GOGO is an investigator-initiated collaboration involving seven clinical academic sites and sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline. Family ascertainment was carried out between 1999 and 2002. A qualifying family required self-reported Caucasian ethnicity and at least two affected siblings with clinical hand OA. We hypothesized that this clinical phenotype would facilitate identification of participants with multijoint radiographic OA (rOA) in and beyond the hand. The "gold standard" case definition, however, was based on rOA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade > or =2) involving > or =3 hand joints distributed bilaterally and including at least one distal interphalangeal joint, with two of the three involved joints within a joint group (distal interphalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, or carpometacarpal). Radiographs of hips, knees and spine were also obtained. Additional siblings and living parents from qualifying families, both affected and unaffected, were invited to participate.

Results: A total of 2706 participants had complete clinical and radiological examination data. Of these, 2569 participants met clinical examination criteria for affected status; while 1963 (73%) participants met the prespecified radiographic criteria for affected status. This corresponded to a total of 707 families with at least two affected siblings that met the hand rOA criteria. Of those individuals with rOA of the hand, the frequency of rOA at other sites was highest for the knee (51%) and spine (54%), and less common for the hip (25%). Concordance rates among hand affected siblings were greatest for spine (36%) followed by knee (31%) and hip (9%); a total of 53% of the affected sib pairs were concordant for specific patterns of generalized rOA involving the hand and large joints (knees, hips or spine).

Conclusions: GOGO represents a large multicenter collection of families with multiple joint OA that have been characterized both clinically and radiographically. The GOGO study will employ a comprehensive strategy for genetic screening based upon both qualitative and quantitative radiographic trait analyses, circulating biomarkers in a quantitative trait-based analysis, fine mapping, and candidate gene analysis. This sample should provide sufficient power to detect linkage to OA associated genes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomedical Research
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoarthritis / diagnosis
  • Osteoarthritis / genetics*
  • Pedigree
  • Phenotype
  • Risk Factors