Background and aims: Delayed traumatic hematomas and expansion of already detected hematomas are not uncommon. Only few studies are available on risk factors of expanding hematomas. A prospective study was aimed to find out risk factors associated with such traumatic lesions.
Materials and methods: Present study is based on 262 cases of intracerebral hematomas / contusions out of which 43 (16.4%) hematomas expanded in size. computerized tomography (CT) scan was done in all the patients at the time of admission and within 24 hours of injury. Repeat CT scan was done within 24 hours, 4 days and 7 days. Midline shift if any, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time, clotting time and platelet counts, Glasgow coma scale at admission and discharge and Glasgow outcome score at 6 months follow up were recorded.
Results: Twenty six percent, 11.3 and 0% patients developed expanding hematoma in Glasgow Coma scale (GCS) of 8 and below, 9-12 and 13-15 respectively. The chances of expanding hematomas were higher in patients with other associated hematomas (17.4%) as compared to isolated hematoma (4.8%) (Fisher's exact results P =0.216). All the cases of expanding hematoma had some degree of midline shift and considerably higher proportion had presence of coagulopathy. The results of logistic regression analysis showed GCS, midline shift and coagulopathy as significant predictors for the expanding hematoma. Thirty nine patients (90.7%) of the total expanding hematomas developed within 24 hours of injury.
Conclusions: Enlargement of intracerebral hematomas is quite common and majority of them expand early after the injury. These lesions were common in patients with poor GCS, associated hematomas, associated coagulopathy and midline shift.