Background: Cancer risk, including pancreatic, is high in those with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). It has been suggested that such patients should undergo screening for pancreatic cancer.
Methods: The risk of pancreatic cancer in PJS, pancreatic screening and potential screening strategies were reviewed. Cost-effectiveness was assessed according to American Gastroenterology Association guidelines and a risk stratification model proposed by the European Registry of Hereditary Pancreatitis and Familial Pancreatic Cancer.
Results: The risk of pancreatic cancer is increased in PJS but screening would cost over US 35,000 dollars per life saved. Risk stratification reduces cost by 100,000 dollars and costs fall to 50,000 dollars per life saved if deaths from other forms of cancer are avoided.
Conclusion: Screening should be performed only on a research basis to evaluate the benefit and cost-effectiveness in high-risk groups.