Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily members play diverse roles in all aspects of cartilage development and maintenance. It is well established that TGF-betas and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play distinct roles in the growth plate. This chapter discusses key experiments and experimental approaches that have revealed these roles, and progress toward the identification of previously unsuspected roles. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which different TGF-beta and BMP pathways exert their functions is discussed. Finally attempts to utilize this information to promote cartilage regeneration, and important issues for future research, are outlined.